Serving Citizen Warriors Through Advocacy and Education Since 1922
The Reserve Officers Association CY-2006 Legislative Priorities are:
o Full funding of equipment and training requirements for the National Guard and Reserve.
o Providing adequate resource and authorities to support the current recruiting and retention requirements of the National Guard and Reserve.
Issues to help FUND, EQUIP, AND TRAIN
• Fully fund Military Pay Appropriation to guarantee a minimum of 48 drills and two weeks training for each selected Reservist in every service.
• Sustain authorization and appropriation to National Guard and Reserve Equipment Account (NGREA) to permit flexibility for Reserve Chiefs in support of mission and readiness needs.
• Optimize funding for additional training, preparation and operational support.
• Regenerate the Reserve Components (RC) with Current field, combat, and communication compatible equipment.
• Keep Active and Reserve personnel and Operation & Maintenance funding separate.
• Equip Reserve Component members with equivalent personal protection as Active Component Forces.
Issues to assist RECRUITING AND RETENTION
Support incentives for affiliation, reenlistment, retention and continuation in the RC.
Allow RC bonus payments through 20 years of service.
Pay and Compensation:
• Differential pay for federal employees.
• Professional pay for RC medical professionals.
• Eliminate the 1/30th rule for Aviation Career Incentive Pay, Career Enlisted Flyers Incentive Pay, Diving Special Duty Pay, and Hazardous Duty Incentive Pay.
• Increase MGIB-Selected Reserve to 47 percent of MGIB-Active.
• Expand the 28 percent co-payment to TRICARE Reserve Select to unemployed and uninsured Ready Reservists.
• Extend military coverage for restorative dental care for up to 180 days following deployment.
• Repeal the SBP-Dependency Indemnity Clause (DIC) offset.
ROA’s goals come from our members as they identify problems or suggest improvements to the situations they encounter. Since we are not in the Department of Defense’s chain of command we provide a source for candid discourse without fear of retaliation. ROA will continue to support the troops in the field in any way we can.
NATIONAL GUARD & RESERVE EQUIPMENT & PERSONNEL ACCOUNTS
RESETTING THE FORCE
Resetting or reconstitution of the force is the process to restore people, aircraft and equipment to a high state of readiness following a period of higher-than-normal, or surge, operations. The purpose of force reconstitution is to restore optimum combat power.
Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom are consuming the force’s equipment. Wear and tear is at a rate many times higher then planned. Battle damage expends additional resources. Factors affecting equipment availability:
• Equipment Left in Theater – Leaving equipment behind for follow is practical. Yet, it also affects the returning units from which the equipment was the original allowance. Future training is downgraded, directly affecting readiness.
• Repair: Encompasses cost of parts, stand-down of assets while waiting for parts, scheduling backlogs for added contingency equipment into a normal repair cycle. This may require hiring additional personnel to reduce scheduling overloads.
• Depot Level Maintenance: Factors in delayed scheduled maintenance resulting in aircraft and equipment being in violation of maintenance requirements during engagements.
• Cannibalization: Can be commonplace as units strip essential parts and components from already “broken” equipment in order to spare parts. This practice can lead to equipment loss.
• Replace: Loss of inventory that can’t be salvaged and must be replaced must be considered as part of the reconstitution effort
• TRAINING: When Reserve Component personnel participate in an operation they are focused on the needs of the particular mission, which may not include everything required to maintain qualification status in their military occupation specialty (MOS, AFSC, NEC).
• There are many different aspects of training that are affected
o Skills that must be refreshed for specialty
o Training needed for upgrade but delayed
o Ancillary training missed
o Professional military education needed to stay competitive
o Professional continuing education requirements for single-managed career fields and other certified or licensed specialties required annually
o Graduate education in business related areas to address force transformation and induce officer retention
• Loss: There are particular challenges that occur to the force when a loss occurs during a mobilization or operation and depending on the specialty this can be a particularly critical requirement that must be met
o Recruiting may require particular attention to enticing certain specialties or skills to fill critical billets
o Minimum levels of training (84 days basic, plus specialty training)
o Retraining may be required due to force leveling as emphasis is shifted within the service to meet emerging requirements
The ROA would like to also put a freeze on reductions to the Guard and Reserve manning levels. ROA urges this subcommittee to fund to last year’s levels.
In a time of war and the highest OPTEMPO in recent history, it is wrong to make cuts to the end strength of the Reserve Components. The Commission on National Guard and Reserve will be examining Reserve Force Structure, and will make recommendations as to size in its report to the Congress in March 2007.
As Congress maintained the Army Guard strengths, it is essential that the end strength of the Army Reserve should not be cut either. We urge you to fund the USAR at 205,000.
To meet the challenge of changes in end strength, the AF Reserve Command has prioritized all of its unit and IMA personnel positions. Until recommendations are made by the Commission on the Guard and Reserve, end strength should not be changed.
The Navy’s Reserve has been cut over 18 percent in the last 5 years and by half in the last 15 years. We need to pause to permit force planning and strategy to catch-up with budget reductions.
Readiness is a product of many factors, including the quality of officers and enlisted, full staffing, extensive training and exercises, well-maintained weapons and authorized equipment, efficient procedures, and the capacity to operate at a fast tempo. The pace of wartime operations has a major impact on service members.
The Defense Department does not attempt to keep all active units at the C-1 level. The risk is without resetting the force returning Active and Reserve units will be C-4 or lower because of missing equipment, and without authorized equipment their training levels will deteriorate.
NONFUNDED ARMY RESERVE
Funding must be increased across the board for the Department of Defense. Shortfalls are especially glaring relative to the Army and the Army RC components of the Reserve and Guard. We urge substantial increases in funding for all these Army entities.
If the USAR is to be an operational force in a high OPTEMPO then an investment must be made. The AR will have a deficit of over $632 million for FY 07 in its Personnel ($446 million) and Operations and Maintenance ($186 million) accounts.
The AR is projecting a long-term shortfall of nearly 5,000 company grade officers, yet its budget for the Army Reserve Basic Officer Course, which trains both new officers entering the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard, is funded for about 850 of the 2300 AR and ARNG officers programmed for attendance. Similar major shortfalls will occur in recruiting and retention incentives ($322 million), sustainment training ($41 million), tuition assistance ($20 million), and in a variety of programs related to recruiter support ($14 million), family ($9 million), marketing program ($11 million) and chaplain support ($8 million), and other areas as well.
New USAR Equipment Strategy – How it Works
The Army Reserve has developed a new strategy to make the most effective and efficient use of its equipment. The new strategy supports the Army Force Generation and the Army Reserve Expeditionary Force (AREF) management systems. It ensures the best available equipment is provided to Army Reserve Soldiers where and when they need it, as they move through the pre-mobilization training phase of the AREF cycle toward mobilization and deployment.
Individual equipment, such as weapons and masks, will be maintained at unit stations, with enough of a unit’s major items – trucks, forklifts, etc. – to allow for effective training and to support homeland defense requirements.
In the new model, units will be moved to the equipment located at the training sites, rather than moving equipment to the units. Creating centrally located equipment pools to support directed and focused training, will enable the Army Reserve to yield efficiencies in resourcing and maintaining its equipment.
ARMY RESERVE EQUIPMENT PRIORITIES
AIR FORCE RESERVE EQUIPMENT PRIORITIES
ROA continues to support military aircraft Multi-Year Procurement (MYP) for more C-17s and more C-130Js for USAF. The Air Force Reserve (AFR) is working to continue as an interoperable member of the Total Air Force to support mission requirements of the joint warfighter. To achieve interoperability in the future, the Air Force Reserve top five priorities for “Other Equipment” are:
C-5A Airlift Defensive System (ADS). $11.8M
Install ADS systems onto AFRC C-5As at Lackland and Wright-Patterson AFBs where current aircraft do not have defense systems against IR threats.
Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM). $228.5M
Program of record for Mobility Air Forces (MAF) aircraft. The system increases crew-warning time, decreases false alarm rates and automatically counters advanced infrared missile systems. The missile warning subsystem will use multiple sensors to provide full spatial coverage for C-5B, C-17, C-130 H2/H3/J and HC-130s.
Advanced Threat Warning/Targeting System
Program of record for MAF and Air Force Special Operations Forces. The world's first all-digital radar warning receiver (RWR), the ALR-69A(V) features capabilities previously unattainable in a tactical RWR: suppression of enemy air defenses, easy cross-platform integration, and enhanced spectral and spatial coverage for high-sensitivity detection in dense signal environments.
Low Power Color Radar
(AN/APN-241) for C-130. $21.0M
Program of record for C-130 Avionics Modernization Program. Radar capabilities include high-resolution ground mapping that enables accurate low-level navigation and precision aerial drops.
Enhanced Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (ETCAS) $14.6M
for MC-130: Install ETCAS (APN-241) all weather, color radar on MC-130s
NAVY RESERVE EQUIPMENT PRIORITIES
Naval Coastal Warfare Table of Allowance Equipment $24.3 M.
Replacements of over-aged and unreliable tactical vehicles, CSCE and communications equipment are needed to improve operational support of Combatant Commanders.
Explosive Ordnance Disposal Table of Allowance Equipment $2.4 M.
Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Reserve personnel require dive and protective gear, up-armored vehicles, boats and communications gear to improve operational support of Combatant Commanders.
NCF Tactical Vehicles and Support Equipment $30.1 M.
Tactical vehicles, CESE and communications equipment are needed to improve operational support of Combatant Commanders.
C-40 A Combi cargo/passenger Airlift $75 M
The Navy requires a Navy Unique Fleet Essential Airlift Replacement Aircraft. This aircraft was designated as the C-40A and will replace the aging C-9 fleet. The maximum range for the C-40A is approximately 1,500 miles more than the C-9.
The C-40A, a derivative of the 737-700C is a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certified, high performance, fixed wing aircraft that will accommodate 121 passengers, or eight pallets of cargo (40K lbs), or a combination configuration consisting of 3 pallets and 70 passengers. The Navy’s aging C–9 fleet is not compliant with either future global navigation requirements or noise abatement standards that restrict flights into European airfields. Twenty-two aircraft remain to be replaced.
MARINE CORPS RESERVE EQUIPMENT PRIORITIES:
- Field Medical Equipment (FFME) $ 3.5 M
- Shelter and Tents (Command Post Large Tactical Shelter) $ 2.2 M
- Shelters and Tents (Ultra Lightweight Camouflage Net System $ 5.3 M
- Individual First Aid Kit (IFAK) $ 3.5 M
- Infantry Combat Equipment (ICE) $ 11.7 M
- Portable Tent Lighting $ 3.5 M
NATIONAL GUARD AND RESERVE EQUIPMENT ALLOWANCE
Prior to 1997, the National Guard and Reserve Equipment Appropriation was a critical resource to ensure adequate funding for new equipment for the Reserve Components. The much-needed items not funded by the respective service budget were frequently purchased through this appropriation. In some cases it was used to bring unit equipment readiness to a needed state for mobilization.
With the War, the Reserve and Guard are faced with mounting challenges on how to replace worn out equipment, equipment lost due to combat operations, legacy equipment that is becoming irrelevant or obsolete, and in general replacing that which is gone or aging through normal wear and tear.
In the past, the use of “cascading” equipment from the Active Component to the Reserve Component has been a reliable source of serviceable equipment. However, with the changes in roles and missions that have placed a preponderance of combat support and combat service support in the reserve components, there has not been much left to cascade. Funding levels, rising costs, lack of replacement parts for older equipment, etc. has made it difficult for the Reserve Components to maintain their aging equipment, not to mention modernizing and recapitalizing to support a viable legacy force. The Reserve Components would benefit greatly from a National Military Resource Strategy that includes a National Guard and Reserve Equipment Appropriation.
To optimize the readiness of the Guard and Reserve it is also imperative to maintain separate Reserve funds from the Active duty.
RECRUITING AND RETENTION
The Reserve Officers Association would like to thank this committee for it support with funding recruiting and reenlistment bonuses for both the Active and Reserve.
As combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan become “stability” operations, it is expected that the Army Reserve and National Guard will make up 50% or more of the force. Both the Active Component and the Reserve Component will move to a rotational plan that will provide both predictability and stability for soldiers. Recruiting and retention bonuses are helping meet these requirements. The Army Reserve needs to fully fund their bonus program with $332 million and increase AGR recruiter positions with funding to $59.1 million.
In March, the Navy Reserve recruited 757 sailors, 87 percent of its goal. While the Navy’s Reserve is downsizing to reach the new end-strengths set by Congress of 73,100 from 83,400. There still remains a need to recruit. The enlistment bonus program supports the Navy's emerging human capital strategy. It enables the Navy to
enlist personnel with the right skill and education mix to meet the needs of the force.
Air Force Reserve
In a ten-year period the Air Force Reserve went from accessing 50,507 prior service members in 1992 to 14,950 in 2005. This has meant increased funding of $20.4 million for recruiting of non-prior service personnel to meet recruitment quotas.
It can take from one to two years before an individual can perform military duty somewhat independently. Each year for the past five years, AF Reserve has enhanced its advertising effort due to the need to compete in the demographic pool with the active and National Guard recruiters. The recruiting competition will be stiffer and the advertising dollar will produce less results.
ROA recommends supporting bonus incentives and reverse cost avoidance reduction trends that cut the reserve personnel and technician accounts.
CIOR/CIOMR FUNDING REQUEST
The Interallied Confederation of Reserve Officers (CIOR) was founded in 1948, and its affiliate organization, The Interallied Confederation of Medical Reserve Officers (CIOMR) was founded in 1947. The organization is a nonpolitical, independent confederation of national reserve associations of the signatory countries of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO). Presently there are 16 member delegations representing over 800,000 reserve officers.
CIOR is recognized as the representative of NATO’s Reserve Forces, formalized in 1976. An International Staff Liaison Officer is designated and has, on behalf of the NATO Secretary General, responsibility for formal contacts between NATO and CIOR and for providing political advice. A Reserve Affairs Advisor has been appointed at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE). This officer’s principle duties include liaison with CIOR for Allied Command Europe (ACE).
CIOR supports four programs to improve professional development and international understanding.
MILITARY COMPETITION: The CIOR Military Competition is a strenuous three day contest on warfighting skills among Reserve Officers teams from member countries. These contests emphasize combined and joint military actions relevant to the multinational aspects of current and future Alliance operations.
LANGUAGE ACADEMY: The two official languages of NATO are English and French. As a non-government body, operating on a limited budget, it is not in a position to afford the expense of providing simultaneous translation services. The Academy offers intensive courses in English and French at proficiency levels 1, 2 and 3 as specified by NATO Military Agency for Standardization. The Language Academy affords national junior officer members the opportunity to become fluent in English as a second language.
PARTNERSHIP for PEACE (PfP): Established by CIOR Executive Committee in 1994 with the focus of assisting NATO PfP nations with the development of reserve officer and enlisted organizations according to democratic principles. CIOR’s PfP Committee, fully supports the development of civil-military relationships and respect for democratic ideals within PfP nations. CIOR PfP Committee also assists in the invitation process to participating countries in the Military Competition.
YOUNG RESERVE OFFICERS WORKSHOP: The workshops are arranged annually by the NATO International Staff (IS). Selected issues are assigned to joint seminars through the CIOR Defense and Security Issues (SECDEF) Commission. Junior grade officers work in a joint seminar environment to analyze Reserve concerns relevant to NATO.
Dues do not cover the workshops and individual countries help fund the events. The Department of the Army as Executive Agent hasn’t been funding these programs.
ROA LAW CENTER
It was suggested that ROA could incorporate some federal military offices, such as recruiting offices, into the newly remodeled ROA Minuteman Memorial building. ROA would be willing to work with this committee on any suggestion.
The Reserve Officers Association’s recommendation would be to develop a Servicemembers Law Center, advising Active and Reserve servicemembers who have been subject to legal problems that occur during deployment.
A legal center would help encourage new members to join the Active, Guard and Reserve components by providing a non-affiliation service to educate prior service about USERRA and Servicemember Civil Relief Act (SCRA) protections, and other legal issues. It would help retention as a member of the staff could work with Active and Reserve Component members to counsel those who are preparing to deploy, deployed or recently deployed members facing legal problems.
The Legal Center could advise, refer by providing names of attorneys who work related legal issues and amicus curiae briefs, encourage law firms to represent service members, and educate and training lawyers, especially active and reserve judge advocates on service member protection cases. The center could also be a resource to Congress.
ROA would set-aside office spaces. ROA’s Defense Education Fund would hire an initial staff of one lawyer, and one administrative law clerk to man the Servicemembers Law Center to counsel individuals and their legal representatives.
Anticipated startup cost, first year: $750,000
DoD is in the middle of executing a war and operations in Iraq are directly associated with this effort. The impact of the war is affecting the very nature of the Guard and Reserve, not just the execution of Roles and Missions. Without adequate funding, the Guard and Reserve may be viewed as a source to provide fund to the Active Component. It makes sense to fully fund the most cost efficient components of the Total Force, its Reserve Components.
At a time of war, we are expending the smallest percentage of GDP in history on National Defense. Funding now reflects about 3.8% of GDP. ROA has a resolution urging that defense spending should be 5% to cover both the war and Homeland Security. While these are big dollars, the President and Congress must understand that this type of investment is what it will take to equip, train and maintain an all-volunteer force for adequate National Security.
The Reserve Officers Association, again, would like to thank the sub-committee for the opportunity to present our testimony. We are looking forward to working with you, and supporting your efforts in any way that we can.
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